Archive for the ‘Research’ Category

Having doctoral degree = Ubiquitous learning

March 8th, 2016 Comments off

Process of findings meanings of economics and finance theory and paradigm is varied. Though the higher institutions offer ‘PhD’, it does not mean the students and alumni have always studied epistemology and ontology extensively. Even Professor Emeritus stated:

Although my ultimate academic degree declared that I was a Doctor of Philosophy (meaning a research degree), I have never, during some eight years of university education, had a course in philosophy. Reading some of the works of these philosophers, I realized that my research has been an imitation of others without understanding what lies beneath the surface and without contributing much to the process of discovery: the search for truth, that must be the ultimate, all dominant and most noble objective of science

(George M. Frankfurter, 2007, Theory and Reality in Financial Economics: Essays Toward a New Political Finance, World Scientific, USA)

Studying is an ubiquitous running towards sunrise, literally and implicitly, indeed.

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Mempublikasikan artikel pada jurnal internasional (Bagian 1)

March 4th, 2016 Comments off

Ada banyak pertanyaan, baik dari dosen atau mahasiswa, bagaimana cara men-submit atau mempublikasikan artikel untuk jurnal internasional? Jawaban atas pertanyaan ini sebenarnya panjaaang, hehehee…

Mengapa begitu? Karena, publikasi ilmiah merupakan bagian dari rangkaian panjang proses penelitian. Maksud publikasi artikel sebenarnya adalah untuk mendiseminasikan hasil penelitian kita, agar hasil penelitian yang sudah dilaksanakan sesuai dengan kaidah ilmiah tersebut mendapatkan pengakuan dan kritikan dari khalayak akademisi. Jika publikasi tersebut ada di tingkat internasional, maka pengakuan dan komentar yang diharapkan adalah berasal dari berbagai negara. Demikian pula, jika publikasi bersifat nasional, tanggapan dan pengakuan yang diharapkan peneliti adalah dari masyarakat akademik di Indonesia. Oleh karenanya, jika suatu artikel terpublikasi pada jurnal internasional bereputasi, atau terindeks Scopus atau Thomson-Reuters, menunjukkan bahwa artikel tersebut sudah layak dijadikan sebagai referensi bagi peneliti selanjutnya di tingkat internasional, yang berminat pada topik yang relevan. Temuan yang disajikan dalam artikel tersebut secara internasional layak diakui dapat memberikan kontribusi terhadap teori tertentu, yaitu telah mengisi empirical atau theoretical gap atas kemampuan suatu teori untuk menjelaskan suatu fenomena riil.

Nah, dengan begitu, saya harap Anda mendapatkan ilustrasi bahwa prasyarat mutlak untuk dapat mempublikasikan artikel pada jurnal internasional ya berarti dengan melakukan penelitian sesuai dengan kaidah ilmiah yang baku. Dengan modal artikel yang bermutu, paling tidak Anda sudah boleh memiliki kepercayaan diri untuk men-submit artikel Anda pada jurnal internasional yang bereputasi sekalipun. Anda akan merasa bahwa hasil temuan riset Anda layak untuk dibaca dan digunakan sebagai referensi peneliti selanjutnya.

Jika hasil riset yang layak telah ada di tangan, tahap selanjutnya adalah membenahi bahasa dan format penulisan. Namanya saja jurnal internasional, bahasa yang digunakan ya bahasa internasional. Saat ini ada enam (6) bahasa yang secara internasional diakui oleh Persatuan Bangsa-bangsa, yaitu bahasa Arab, China, Rusia, Perancis, Spanyol, dan Inggris. Sayangnya bahasa Indonesia belum diakui secara internasional, meskipun jumlah penduduk Indonesia sebagai pengguna utama bahasa Indonesia (first language) berjuta-juta..hehehee

Umumnya jurnal internasional yang diacu masyarakat Indonesia menggunakan bahasa Inggris. Anda barangkali membutuhkan rekan yang memahami konteks riset Anda untuk memberikan saran tone Bahasa Inggris yang Anda gunakan dalam penulisan artikel. Jika dana publikasi Anda cukup, Anda bisa menggunakan fasilitas yang disediakan oleh jurnal yang Anda pilih untuk memperbaiki tata tulis Bahasa Inggris Anda. Berikut contoh syarat penggunaan bahasa di salah satu jurnal internasional bereputasi:

Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier’s WebShop ( or visit our customer support site ( for more information.

Terkait format tulisan, Anda perlu mengenali gaya selingkung yang biasa digunakan dalam jurnal tersebut. Untuk mengenali gaya tersebut, Anda perlu masuk ke website jurnal yang Anda tuju, cari dan baca petunjuk penulisan bagi penulis. Untuk lebih jelas, Anda bisa download salah satu artikel yang dipublikasikan di jurnal tersebut kemudian kenali gaya selingkungnya.

Oh ya, memilih ke jurnal mana Anda akan mempublikasikan karya ilmiah Anda juga memerlukan trik. Adalah suatu keharusan untuk memilih jurnal yang sesuai dengan topik riset Anda. Mengapa? Karena setiap jurnal umumnya sudah memiliki dan menyasar pangsa pembaca mayoritas. Jika Anda memilih jurnal yang tidak relevan dengan tema dasar jurnal, besar kemungkinan submission Anda akan ditolak.

…tarik napas dulu…berlanjut yaa..

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Is CSR powerful to be a barrier from business unfriendly activities?

June 12th, 2015 Comments off

In a day, people rallied and campaigned ‘Occupy Wall Street’ pursued:

“We come to you at a time when corporations, which place profit over people, self-interest over justice, and oppression over equality, run our governments”.

The main question in the current business query is TO WHOM THE CORPORATION SHOULD BE ACCOUNTABLE.

Brammer, Jackson, Matten (2012)


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Developing a research proposal

August 9th, 2012 Comments off

Area, topic, purpose

  1. What is my research area? Have I clearly identified it?
  2. What is my topic? Have I clearly identified it, and shown how it fits within the research area?
  3. What is the overal purpose of my research?

Background and context

  1. Into what background and context does my research fit?

Research questions

  1. What are my general research questions?
  2. What are my specific research questions?
  3. Does each specific research question meet the empirical criterion? That is, is it clear what data are required to answer each question?

Relevant literature

  1. What literature is relevant to my study?
  2. What is the relationship of my study to this literature?
  3. How will my study deal with the literature?
  4. How does my proposal use the literature?


  1. Is there a particular perspective behind my research?

Substantive theory

  1. What is the role of theory in my study?
  • Does the description-explanation distinction apply? If my purpose is explanatory, is the focus on theory verification or theory generation? What is the logic behind my position?
  • Does the distinction between theory verification and theory generation apply? What is the logic behind my position?
  • Is my focus is theory verification, what are the hypothesis and what is the theory behind them?

Pre-structured versus unfolding

  1. To what extent is my study pre-structured or unfolding? Does this apply differentially to different parts of my study?

Methods and data

  1. Will my study use quantitative methods and data, qualitative methods and data, or both?
  2. What strategy(ies) will  my study use?
  3. Does my study have a conceptual framework?
  4. Who or what will be studied?
  5. From whom will data be collected? Specifically, what is the sampling plan, the sample size and the basis for sample collection?
  6. How will I collect the data?
  7. What instruments (if any) will be used? Will I use already existing instruments? If so, what is known about them? Will I develop instruments for this study? If so, using what steps?
  8. What data collection procedures will be used?
  9. How will these procedures maximize the quality of my data?
  10. How will I analyze my data?
  11. What computer packages will be involved?

Consent, access, ethics

  1. What issues of consent are involved in carrying out my study, and how will they be dealt with?
  2. What issues of access are involved in carrying out my study, and how will they be dealt with?
  3. What other ethical issues are involved in carrying out my study, and how will they be dealt with?


  1. Does my proposal constitute a logical and coherent argument, with interconnected sections? Do its parts fit together?
  2. Have I given enough information for readers to make the judgements?
  3. Have I been clear? Is the proposal well organized, easy to follow and clearly written?
  4. Is my proposal presented in an appropriate scholarly form?

#In the middle of shorting out sheets @M303


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Writing good paper

August 8th, 2012 Comments off
  1. The questions are important and interesting to others
  2. The outcomes are believed to add knowledge
  3. It has solid theoretical foundation
  4. It has strong on research method
  5. Rigorous, parsimonious and fruitful models
  6. Care in samples selection and data collection
  7. It has appropriate data analysis and correct inferences
  8. Robustness checks
  9. Intuitive checks on reasonableness of findings
  10. Adequate discussion and valid interpretation
  11. Sound appreciation of implications
  12. Limitations are acknowledged
  13. Well-written
  14. Directed to audience

As delivered by Philip Brown, UNSW, UWA & Lancaster Univ., FCGC, Melbourne, 2011

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Why doing research about Japan?

July 16th, 2012 Comments off

Japan is always interesting subject of research because it has great respect on, firstly, cultural ‘fascinosum’ and secondly, economic power. In terms of the culture, Japan has a unique culture, I guess everyone knows about it :)

The Japan’s culture combines two completely different features:

  • Japan as a technological nation. In this way, salary-men are best known of its efficiency, forward-thinking, socially and economically homogeneous, sacrificing itself for the sake of the good of the nation with all the forces of Japan marching in rank and file, in a manner of speaking, at the same tempo along the straight road to growth, ahead of all other nations.
  • Japan as a country where the people appreciates tradition highly. The country lovingly nurtures a sensitively refined culture. The people has developed a markedly subtle, intense communication and social system.

You can dig and discover interesting treasures from these points, if you give it try ;)

Source: Kensy, Rainer (2001) Keiretsu Economy – New Economy? Japan’s Multinational Enterprises from a Postmodern Perspective, Palgrave, Great Britain: Hampshire.

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Corporate Governance

March 11th, 2011 Comments off

You may think that corporate governance and corporate social responsibility (hereafter CSR) are refering to the similar definition. For academicians, however, both have different focus of study. While CSR is more related to business strategy and its performance to deal with social and environmental issues, corporate governance is usually developed with the primary objective of protecting the rights of shareholders in listed companies. Primarily it concerns to shareholders with access to limited information.

Most of the recent reforms in the US and the UK were certainly designed to give shareholders greater protections, or to restore investor confidence in the capital markets, as well as more protection to directors, management and auditors. In some practical activities, corporate governance has been displayed to the following firms’ strategies.

  1. Provide appropriate right of access to information
  2. Improved disclosure
  3. Internal controls and disclosure control
  4. Enhanced shareholder activism

Source: Mullerat, Ramon (Ed.). 2005. Corporate Social Responsibility: The Corporate Governance of the 21st Centruy. Hague, Netherland: Kluwer Law International.

*enjoying study in the cyber room with friendly mates during Spring 2011 vacations. Love it much ^^*

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Creating shared value: What businesses can do to reshape ‘unfriendly’ capitalism

January 19th, 2011 Comments off

The writing below is quoted from the latest edition of Harvard Business Review,January-February 2011. I intend to post it here to share the eagerness of Michael E. Porter and Mark R. Kramer to introduce ‘Shared Value’. This new idea is valuable to rethink about link between business and social environmental. Let us think about ‘shared value’.

Business is caught in a vicious circle. Companies remain trapped in an outdated approach to value creation over the past few decades by continuing to view value creation narrowly, optimizing short-term financial performance, missing the most important customer needs and ignoring the broader influences that determine longer-term success. How could companies overlook the well-being of their customers, the depletion of natural resources vital to their business, the viability of key suppliers, or the economic distress of the communities in which they produce and sell? How could companies think that simply shifting activities to locations with ever lower wages was a sustainable ‘solution’ to competitive advantages? Government and civil society have often exacerbated the problem by attempting to address social weaknesses at the expenses of business. The presumed grad-offs between economy efficiency and social progress has been institutionalized in decades of policy choices.

Companies must take the lead in bringing business and society back together. The recognition is there among sophisticated business and thought leaders, and promising elements of a new model are emerging. Yet there is a lack an overall framework for guiding these efforts, and most companies remain stuck in a social responsibility mind set in which societal issues are at the periphery, not the core.

The solution lies in the principle of shared value, which involves creating economic value in a way that also creates value for society by addressing its needs and challenges. Business must reconnect company success with social progress. Shared value is not social responsibility, philanthropy or even sustainability, but a new way to achieve economic success. It is not in the margin of what companies do but at the center. However, recognition of the transformative power of shared value is still in its genesis. Realizing it will require leaders and managers to develop new skills and knowledge, such as appreciation of societal needs, a greater understanding of the true bases of company productivity, and the ability to collaborate across profit/nonprofit boundaries. And government must learn how to regulate in ways that enable shared value rather than work against it.

Capitalism is an unparalleled vehicle for meeting human needs, improving efficiency, creating jobs, and building wealth. But a narrow conception of capitalism has prevented business from harnessing its full potential to meet society’s broader challenges. The opportunities have been there all along but have been overlooked. Businesses acting as businesses, not as charitable donors, are the most powerful force for addressing the pressing issues we face. The moment for a new conception of capitalism is now, society’s needs are large and growing, while customers, employees and a new generation of young people are asking business to step up.

The purpose of the corporation must be redefined as creating shared value, not just profit per se. This will drive the next wave of innovation and productivity growth in the global economy. It will also reshape capitalism and its relationship to society. Perhaps most important of all, learning how to create shared value is our best chance to legitimize business again.


Michael E. Porter and Mark R. Kramer. 2011. The Big Idea: Creating shared value. Harvard Business Review, January-February 2011.

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Questioning the appropriateness of the natural science approach for organizational behavior and organization theory

October 17th, 2010 10 comments

Behling (2006) highlighted five reasons why natural science model does not rule out in organizational behavior and organization theory:

  1. Uniqueness. Each organization, group, and person differs to some degree from all others. Then, the development of precise general laws in organizational behavior and organization theory is thus impossible. Attempts to generalize from a sample, how carefully it is chosen, will be futile. If it is indeed the case, generalizability of a single study can be pursued by adding more homogeneous populations. But, it still need consider:
    • the definitiveness of the findings
    • the levels of variance explained
    • the applicability of the results to the population
  2. Instability. Phenomena of concern to researchers in organizational behavior and organization theory change frequently. This transitory character cause a difficulty to combine data obtained at different times in order to arrive at general laws. Contrastingly, it is commonly done in the natural sciences. Change of the ‘laws’ governing organization has doubled this instability as well.
  3. Sensitivity. The people who make up organization, as the object of research, and the organizations themselves may behave differently if they notice of researchers hypotheses about them. The changes take form: such awareness may create self-fulfilling prophecies. Participants change their behavior to increase the chances of supporting the hypothesis.
  4. Lack of realism. Manipulating and controlling variables in organizational research may change the phenomena under study. Researcher then cannot generalize from their studies because the phenomena observed inevitably differ from their real world counterparts, primarily if it is applied to laboratory experimentation. Somehow criticisms misunderstood of what a controlled environment for natural science research be. And frequently organization behavior researcher, who has great lack of knowledge, is doing wrong by saying his study is experiment research easily.
  5. Epistemological differences. There is a different kind of ‘knowledge’ which not tapped by natural science approach. Natural science strives to generalize why things happen by identifying causes. On other hand, social science seeks to explain the significance or meaning of phenomena in term of their implications for the unique social systems in which they occur and as manifestation of important social trends, forces and conflicts.


Johnson, Phil and Clark, Murray (Ed.) 2006. Orlando Behling: The case for the natural science model for research in organizational behavior and organization Theory. Business and Management Research Methodologies.Volume 1. Sage Publications. London.

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Reaction to new paradigm

Somehow, there is a difficulty faced by researcher to determine when a new paradigm is needed to explain an event. According to Kuhn (1970), there are three ways are available to react to an anomaly which cannot be explained by ruling the existing paradigm.

  1. Science usually provides proved-way to handle the crisis-provoking problem. Then no new paradigm is needed as the problem can be solved within the old paradigm.
  2. Even if ‘radical new approaches’ fail to explain the anomaly, the future generation is pursued to develop more appropriate tools to explain the anomaly. Then, substitution to new paradigm is surely need more considerations and evidences.
  3. Third possible reaction is that crisis ends with a new candidate for paradigm and with the ensuing battle over its acceptance.

Reference: Kulpmann, Mathias. 2002. Stock market overreaction and fundamental valuation: Theory and empirical evidence. Springer. Germany

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